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NTSB AVIATION ACCIDENT/INCIDENT DATABASE REPORT


General Information

Data Source:                          NTSB AVIATION ACCIDENT/INCIDENT DATABASE
   Report Number:                        DEN90LA029 
   Local Date:                           12/01/1989
   Local Time:                           20:00 CST
   State:                                ND    
   City:                                 GRAND FORKS                        
   Airport Name:                                                  
   Airport Id:                                 
   Event Type:                           ACCIDENT
   Injury Severity:                      MINOR  
   Report Status:                        FINAL      
   Mid Air Collision:                    NO 

Operations Information

Category of Operation:                GENERAL AVIATION       
   Aircraft Type:                        AIRPLANE       
   Aircraft Damage:                      SUBSTANTIAL      
   Phase of Flight:                      570 LANDING                                           
   Aircraft Make/Model:                  PIPER PA-28-161                 
   Operator Doing Business As:                                         
   Operator Name:                                                      
   Operator Code:                            
   Operator:                                                                       
   Owner Name:                           UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA    

Narrative

THE CFI RECEIVED A FSS WEATHER BRIEFING FORECASTING SNOW SHO WERS BOTH 
   EN ROUTE AND ON THE RETURN LEG OF THE FLIGHT. WHILE RECEIVING VECTORS 
   DURING THE RETURN LEG, THE F LIGHT ENCOUNTERED HEAVY SNOW SHOWERS. THE 
   DUAL STUDENT FLEW WHILE THE CFI FILED AND OBTAINED IFR CLEARANCE. THE 
   PLANE FLEW FOR 4 MINUTES THROUGH HEAVY SNOW SHOWERS DURING THE 
   CLEARANCE PROCEDURES. BOTH PILOTS SAID TH E ENGINE QUIT. THE DUAL 
   STUDENT ENTERED EMERGENCY DESCENT WHILE THE CFI ADDED CARBURETOR HEAT 
   AND ATTEMPTED AN ENGINE RESTART, TO NO AVAIL. WHEN THE STUDENT SAID HE 
   SAW THE TERRAIN, THE CFI TOOK THE FLIGHT CONTROLS AND COM PLETED AN 
   EMERGENCY LANDING. AT TOUCHDOWN, THE NOSE WHEEL COLLAPSED IN THE PLOWED 
   FIELD. THE PLANE SLID TO REST WITH A DAMAGED FUSELAGE AND LEFT WING. A 
   POSTACCIDENT INSPECTION BY AN FAA INSPECTOR REVEALED AN ICE BUILDUP IN 
   THE CARBURETOR AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM.

Sequence of Events

Occurrence #: 1  240 IN FLIGHT ENCOUNTER WITH WEATHER
   Phase of Operation: 541 CRUISE - NORMAL

           Findings
           Subject - Modifier - Personnel Cause/Factor

   1a.   20000(S) - 2220(M)  Factor
         WEATHER CONDITION - SNOW
   1b.   24401(S) - 3106(M) - 4103(P)  Factor
         WEATHER FORECAST - DISREGARDED - PILOT IN COMMAND (CFI)
   2a.   20000(S) - 2202(M)  Factor
         WEATHER CONDITION - CARBURETOR ICING CONDITIONS
   2b.   24015(S) - 3102(M) - 4103(P)  Factor
         VFR FLIGHT INTO IMC - CONTINUED - PILOT IN COMMAND (CFI)

   Occurrence #: 2  353 LOSS OF ENGINE POWER (TOTAL) - NON-MECHANICAL
   Phase of Operation: 551 DESCENT - NORMAL

           Findings
           Subject - Modifier - Personnel Cause/Factor

   1a.   16904(S) - 1220(M)
         SINGLE ENGINE AIRCRAFT -                       
   1b.   22304(S) - 3111(M) - 4103(P)  Cause
         CARBURETOR HEAT - INACCURATE - PILOT IN COMMAND (CFI)

   Occurrence #: 3  180 FORCED LANDING
   Phase of Operation: 552 DESCENT - EMERGENCY

           Findings
           Subject - Modifier - Personnel Cause/Factor

   1a.   19200(S) - 2415(M)
         TERRAIN CONDITION - NONE SUITABLE
   2a.   19200(S) - 2425(M)
         TERRAIN CONDITION - SOFT
   3a.   20100(S) - 2305(M)
         LIGHT CONDITION - DARK NIGHT

   Occurrence #: 4  200 HARD LANDING
   Phase of Operation: 571 LANDING - FLARE/TOUCHDOWN

           Findings
           Subject - Modifier - Personnel Cause/Factor


Probable Cause

FAILURE OF THE CFI TO UTILIZE CARBURETOR HEAT PRIOR TO THE INDUCTION 
   ICING AND POWER LOSS.  CONTRIBUTING TO THE ACCIDENT WAS THE CFI'S 
   CONTINUED VFR FLIGHT INTO KNOWN AND FORECAST INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS.

Aircraft Information

Number of Seats:                      4  
   Aircraft Use:                         INSTRUCTIONAL      
   Type of Operation:                    14 CFR 91 
   Domestic/International:                            
   Passenger/Cargo:                                        
   Registration Number:                  130ND 
   Air Carrier Operating Certificates:   ON-DEMAND AIR TAXI
   Aircraft Fire:                        NONE

                  Injuries
          Fatal  Serious  Minor  None
   Crew      0       0       1      1
   Pass      0       0       0      0
   Other     0       0       0      0
   Invlvd    0       0       1      1

   Landing Gear:                         TRICYCLE-FIXED
   Certificated Maximum Gross Weight:    2325
   Engine Make:                          LYCOMING     
   Engine Model:                         O-320-D3G    
   Number of Engines:                    1 
   Engine Type:                          RECIPROCATING-CARBURETOR    

Environment/Operations Information

Basic Weather Conditions:             INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (IMC)
   Wind Direction (deg):                 340
   Wind Speed (knots):                   25
   Visibility (sm):                      37
   Visibility RVR (ft):                  0
   Visibility RVV (sm):                  0
   Cloud Height Above Ground Level (ft): 900
   Visibility Restrictions:              BLOWING SNOW (BS)
   Precipitation Type:                   SNOW SHOWER (SW)
   Light Condition:                      NIGHT (DARK)
   Departure Airport Id:                 PKD 
   Departure City:                       PARK RAPIDS
   Departure State:                      MN
   Destination Airport Id:               GFK 
   Destination City:                     GRAND FORKS
   Destination State:                    ND
   Flight Plan Filed:                    INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR)
   ATC Clearance:                        IFR
   VFR Approach/Landing:                 FORCED LANDING
   Event Location:                       OFF AIRPORT/AIRSTRIP

Pilot-in-Command

Certificates:                         COMMERCIAL, FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR
   Ratings:
     Plane:                              SINGLE ENGINE LAND, MULTIENGINE LAND
     Non-Plane:                          NONE
     Instrument:                         AIRPLANE
   Had Current BFR:                      YES
   Months Since Last BFR:                4  
   Medical Certificate:                  CLASS 1
   Medical Certificate Validity:         VALID MEDICAL-NO WAIVERS/LIMITATIONS

              Flight Time (Hours)
   Total       :    540  Last 24 Hrs :    5
   Make/Model  :     19  Last 30 Days:   12
   Instrument  :     58  Last 90 Days:   50
   Multi-Engine:     17  Rotorcraft  :    0